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Additional resources for 4D Fetal Echocardiography
This is the best section to demonstrate the pulmonary valve (Clip 12, Fig. 5). The Examination of the Normal Fetal Heart Four Dimensional Fetal Echocardiography 25 Figure 5: Short-axis view. LA, left atrium, RA, right atrium, RV, right ventricle, PA, pulmonary artery, Ao, aorta. DUCTAL AND AORTIC ARCH VIEW In a normal fetus, the aortic arch can be evaluated in both transverse and longitudinal views. The transverse view is more useful because the distal arch can be followed to its connection to the duct, and the two vessels can be directly compared in size, they should be equal in diameter.
These steps are sequential. Contemporaneous implementation of these processes during scanning constitutes RT3D ultrasound (Fig. 1). Real Time Three Dimensional Fetal Echocardiography Using Four Dimensional Fetal Echocardiography 31 IMAGE ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING Two Dimensional Matrix Transducer The 2D matrix transducer is a phased array device comprised of approximately two to three thousand piezoelectric elements distributed in a two dimensional matrix array. All the elements transmit and receive unlike the sparse array system.
In the human fetus, peak blood flow velocity is greater during active filling (atrial contraction) than during the rapid filling phase, because of the atriosystolic function. This finding indicates diminished ventricular compliance in the fetal heart . The fetus has a limited range of heart rates over which cardiac outputs can be maintained. Prolonged extreme bradycardia (heart rate less than 50 beats/min) or tachycardia (heart rate higher than 200) is known to cause congestive heart failure and hydrops.