By Michael A. Borowitzka (auth.), Michael A. Borowitzka, Navid R. Moheimani (eds.)
Microalgae are essentially the most studied strength assets of biofuels and bioenergy. This ebook covers the major steps within the construction of renewable biofuels from microalgae - pressure choice, tradition platforms, inorganic carbon utilisation, lipid metabolism and caliber, hydrogen construction, genetic engineering, biomass harvesting, extraction. Greenhouse gasoline and techno-economic modelling are reviewed as is the a hundred yr heritage of microalgae as resources of biofuels and of commercial-scale microalgae tradition. A precis of proper uncomplicated average equipment utilized in the examine of microalgae tradition is supplied. The publication is meant for the specialist and people beginning paintings within the field.
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4 pH Lipids are also affected during growth of algae at extreme pH. Thus, it has been shown that alkaline pH stress increased the TAG percentage accumulation and decreased the relative level of membrane lipids in Chlorella sp. (Guckert and Cooksey 1990). , isolated from a volcanic acidic lake and C. reinhardtii, obtained from an algal collection (Institute of Applied Microbiology, Tokyo) have been studied and compared (Tatsuzawa et al. 1996). Fatty acids in the polar lipids were more saturated in the unidentified Chlamydomonas sp.
Moreover, in most cases algae will not compete for habitats used to produce food crops. In spite of several technical limitations associated with existing technologies in the production of economically-viable algal oil, further research in this area is needed and such studies will clearly benefit from a better understanding of lipid metabolism and accumulation in algal cells. At present, relatively little information is available on lipid biosynthesis and its regulation in algae. Moreover, the lack of information about control mechanisms for lipid synthesis in different algal species limits our attempts to manipulate lipid metabolism in algae.
5 Nutrients Nutrient availability affects significantly the lipid composition of algae, and a number of broad effects of nutrient limitation have been reported as important modulators of algal lipid biosynthesis. It is accepted, that when algal growth slows down as a result of nutrient deficiency, and there is no requirement for the synthesis of new membrane compounds, the cells can transfer fatty acids into their storage lipids before conditions improve. There are many examples showing that algal species deficient in nutrients can more than double their lipid and TAG content (see Thompson 1996; Guschina and Harwood 2006a).