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By Susan Suave Meyer

This can be the 1st entire consultant and in simple terms big undergraduate point creation to old Greek ethics, overlaying the moral theories of all of the significant philosophers (including Socrates, Plato, Aristotle) and colleges (Stoics, Skeptics, Epicureans, Pyrrhonism) from the earliest occasions to the Hellenistic philosophers examining their major arguments and assessing their legacy.

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Thus the orator Gorgias allows under pressure of Socrates’ cross-examination that he will, after all, teach his pupils to be just (460a) and Polus concedes that it is at any rate shameful to commit injustice (474c). In Protagoras’ Great Speech, justice goes hand and hand with a sense of shame (Pr. 322c–d). The challenge to justice in Plato’s dialogues is raised from the perspective of an individual seeker after excellence – someone who wants to live a great life, but doubts whether justice is a help rather than a hindrance in 31 ANCIENT ETHICS this pursuit.

Nonetheless, he claims, it does not yield knowledge (521d–522a). In the Meno he has explained that one has knowledge when one’s correct beliefs have been ‘tied down’ or made secure by reasoning (logismos) about the explanation (or cause, aitia – Meno 97e–98a; cf. Rep. 94 In the Phaedo he tells us that the ultimate explanations (or causes) of things are super-sensible realities – sometimes called ‘forms’ (eidê) or ‘ideas’ (ideai) (Phd. 66e, 100b–e). In Books V–VI of the Republic, Socrates indicates that knowledge involves the grasp, by the intellect, of these forms (Rep.

While we have no independent information about the historical Euthyphro,60 Plato goes to great pains in the dialogue itself to paint him as a fool – engaged in a prosecution that all of his contemporaries and Plato’s readership would have regarded as highly impious. He is prosecuting his father for murder (phonos) – not as a public prosecutor, but as a private citizen bringing the charge on behalf of the deceased. This scandalizes his contemporaries because it violates the norms of filial piety.

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