By M. Steven Fish
Are Muslims specified? represents the 1st significant medical attempt to evaluate how Muslims and non-Muslims differ--and don't differ--in the modern international. utilizing rigorous equipment and knowledge drawn from worldwide, M. Steven Fish unearths that during a few parts Muslims and non-Muslims range under is often imagined. Muslims aren't vulnerable to prefer the fusion of spiritual and political authority or particularly susceptible to mass political violence. but there are adjustments: Gender inequality is extra serious between Muslims, Muslims are surprisingly averse to homosexuality and different debatable behaviors, and democracy is unusual within the Muslim international. different components of divergence endure the marks of a Muslim virtue: murder charges and class-based inequities are much less critical between Muslims than non-Muslims. Fish's findings have very important implications for human welfare, interfaith knowing, and diplomacy.
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Additional info for Are Muslims Distinctive?: A Look at the Evidence
HLM and HGLM, which are forms of multilevel modeling, allow us to consider that there are two levels of potential variation that may affect any individual’s religiosity. At the individual level, characteristics such as gender, age, and education may explain why some people are more religious than others. Yet, the individuals in our sample come from eighty-three countries, and it is likely that country-level characteristics, such as a country’s socioeconomic conditions or its religious composition, might also influence religiosity.
The WVS does not score the answers to the questions in identical fashion. ” We look at average scores on this scale as the measure of religiosity. ” Here the percentage of people who answered “a religious person” is our indicator of religiosity. For the third question, respondents are offered multiple categories that reflect a continuum of frequency of attendance at religious services (more than once a week, once a week, once a month, and so on). The total percentage of respondents who said that they attend services “more than once a week” or “once a week” is our indicator of religiosity.
At least using the terms only for countries in which a clear majority adheres to the faith in question lowers the risk that the differences we find in the data between Muslim countries and non-Muslim countries are accounted for by non-Muslims in Muslim countries or by Muslims in non-Muslim countries. Let us begin our study by aiming squarely at a question about the value and practice of faith among its adherents. Namely, are Muslims especially religious? 2 Personal Religiosity and Religion in Politics Are Muslims more religious than non-Muslims?