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By Sara Rubinelli

Ars Topica is the 1st full-length learn of the character and improvement of topoi, the conceptual ancestors of contemporary argument schemes, among Aristotle and Cicero.

Aristotle and Cicero configured topoi in a fashion that motivated the following culture. Their paintings at the topos-system grew out of an curiosity in making a conception of argumentation that can stand among the rigour of formal common sense and the emotive capability of rhetoric. the program went via a sequence of advancements and adjustments as a result of the interaction among the separate goals of gaining rhetorical effectiveness and of preserving dialectical standards.

Ars Topica provides a complete therapy of Aristotle’s and Cicero’s equipment of topoi and, through exploring their dating, it illuminates a space of historical rhetoric and good judgment which has been obscured for greater than thousand years.

Through an interpretation that is philologically rooted within the old context of topoi, the publication lays the floor for comparing the relevance of the classical techniques to fashionable examine on arguments, and whilst offers an advent to Greek and Roman idea of argumentation focussed on its most vital theoretical achievements.

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44 Topics B 5, 111b 32–33: Ἔτι ὁ σοφιστικὸς τρόπος, τὸ ἄγειν εἰς τοιοῦτον πρὸς ὃ εὐπορήσομεν ἐπιχειρημάτων. The presence of this strategy in one of the central books of the Topics arises some doubts: it would surely be more appropriate in book Θ of the Topics where there are other indications of this sort of manoeuvring. In any case, it differs from the other topoi in nature, and Aristotle himself seems to remark this difference when calling it tropos (τρόπος). 45 Topics Γ 1, 116a 1–2. See supra 18–19.

10 1 Aristotle’s Topics horizon, there is a real distinction in the nature of the reality about which we think, which is paralleled by our manner of thinking about it. In particular, there are ten categories representing a list of predicates, one or other of which declares the mode of its essential being belonging to any subject that exists: «Next we must define the kinds of categories in which the four above-mentioned predicates are found. They are ten in number: essence (τί ἐστι), quantity (ποσόν), quality (ποιόν), relation (πρός τι), place (ποῦ), time (ποτέ), position (κεῖσθαι), state (ἔχειν), activity (ποιεῖν), passivity (πάσχειν).

32 Some scholars have disputed the unity of a topos. Thus, De Pater (1965, 116) reviving an idea that was originally presented by Thionville (1855, 30) thinks that a topos is primarily the ‘law’, while Stump (1978, 168) thinks that a topos is primarily the ‘instruction’. The idea of separating the two components of a topos seems to go back to the post-Aristotelian tradition. Alexander (in Topicorum 135. 3–6) says that Theophrastus distinguished between the instruction of a topos, which he calls par£ggelma, and the law, which he calls topos, and he asserted that «For an investigation-instruction is what is said in more common, universal and simple term, and from it the topos is found; for the principle of the topos is the investigation-instruction, just as the topos is the principle of epicheireme» (tr.

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