Financial modeling in Excel is one of the powerful and most versatile finance skills now. This ability is frequently a sought after add-on to well-known financial designations such as CA, CPA, CFA, CMA and CGA. In a nutshell financial modeling is a process of assembling a multi-year prognosis of a companys financial statements: balance sheet, income statement and statement of cash flows. The planned time period changes from one model to another, the norm being 5 to ten years. Why is financial modeling so significant? It’s used in various finance uses including investment banking initial public offerings (IPO), secondary financings, mergers and acquisitions (M corporate banking; private equity; venture capital; equity research; corporate strategic planning and budgeting; and numerous other important applications. Below are just a couple financial modeling application examples: An investment banker constructs a financial model of a mobile telephony software company which is going through an IPO process. The main outputs of the model will be metrics used in valuation: unlevered free cash flows (UFCF), gains and net debt calculations.
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The financial model will be used in discounted cash flow (DCF) valuation. DCF, jointly with comparable trading and trades valuation will be used in the companys supreme valuation. The end goal of this modeling procedure will be to value the per-share offering price of the companys shares once they’ve been recorded on the stock exchange. A credit-focused the commercial lending unit of an important bank is building financial model. This really is a part of processing a large commercial loan application filed by a manufacturing company which is looking to enlarge its operations. The models emphasis is on the debt servicing ability of the company in question. The most significant outputs the commercial bankers can look at are debt to equity ratio, interest coverage and fixed charge coverage ratios.
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An equity analyst constructs a financial model of an organization that his company determined to initiate on coverage. The focus of the model is on DCF valuation and unlevered free cash flows generated by the company. Depending on the models results the analyst will issue buy/sell/hold recommendations on the stock depending on the relationship of his goal stock price and the current marketplace stock price. A private equity firm is contemplating a 50% acquisition of an early stage pharmaceutical company that desires capital for keeping up its research and development (R&D) program. The private equity firm sees significant and value upside in this scenario given the objective firms pending patent applications. The goal for assembling the financial model will be to establish the cost where the private equity firm is willing to purchase the 50% position, given the hurdle IRR (internal rate of return) speed of 35%. A pulp and paper companys CFO prepares a detailed multi-year budget of the firm. п»ї
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She uses her goal to be achieved by Excel financial modeling techniques. The version will comprise a 5-year projection of the companys income statement, balance sheet and cash-flow statement and help the company assess future funding, staffing and operational needs. The multi-year budget will be submitted to the company CEO for review. The financial modeling procedure is as much an art as it is a science. Solid fiscal modeling training through seminars and courses is a must for individuals seeking careers. These skills are honed and improved through the real life work experience of building financial models. The fiscal modeling procedure starts with gathering info.
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The analyst must become intimately familiar with the company he models, its industry and competitive landscape, its plans and prospects, and the strength of the companys direction. Crucial pieces of info are research analyst reports, management interviews, conference call transcripts, the companys past financial reports, and industry publications. It must be noted this information gathering exercise is substantially more difficult when modeling a private company as against a public company. Private company info can often only be obtained through direct access to the company insiders. A typical Excel financial model will contain the next parts: Assumptions. These are the models input signals. Assumptions are based on its future strategies in addition to the companys historic info and current market trends. Historical and projected financial statements cash flow statement, income statement, balance sheet.
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Projections derive from historic performance and model assumptions. Supporting agenda including working capital schedule, capital expenditures (CAPEX) schedule, debt schedule, and tax schedule. The models results for building the model depend on the principal function. In many scenarios modellers focus on capital structure, unlevered free cash flows, earnings and debt capacity. Scenario and sensitivity evaluations are often integrated including graphs, data tables and scenario zbrush for students managers. Financial models frequently serve as basis for more in-depth further evaluation including valuation, M&An amalgamation modelling (accretion/dilution analysis), LBO investigation and Monte Carlo simulations. What exactly does it take to be a good financial modeller?
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Accounting and finance knowledge is compulsory. In-depth understanding and relationships between line items of the income statement, the cash flow statement and balance sheet is an absolute must. Microsoft Excel proficiency is another prerequisite. A great modeller not only is efficient and fast in using Shines numerous keyboard shortcuts, but also knows Excel functions, tools and formats. Sometimes it takes years of Excel modeling to become really proficient at this job.